Tier 3 focuses on the individual behavior of the remaining 5-10% of students who are not responding to the Universal and tier 2 Systems of Support. These students are experiencing a life crisis or have developed chronic problem behaviors. Tier 3 behavioral interventions include wraparound planning.

Wraparound planning is a process based on student and family strengths as well as needs across the home, school, and community. Interventions may extend beyond the structured school day.

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Tier 3 Chart
How are Students Identified for Tier 3 Tertiary Interventions and Supports?

The 5-10% of students who need intensive Tier 3 Interventions and Supports are identified by the building team. There is no set criterion but the following needs are considered:

  • The student’s needs are numerous and cannot be effectively handled through Tier 1 or 2 services.
  • The student’s needs range across the life domain areas: family, living situation, vocational, educational, social/recreational, psychological/emotional, medical, legal, and safety/crisis.
  • The student is at-risk for change of educational placement because he/she is not responding to current systems and practices.
  • The adults in the student’s life are facing life challenges impacting the entire family (examples: adults not getting along well, adults needing help meeting basic needs, etc).
  • The student’s needs are expressed by the student and/or family members.
Wraparound Support

The Tier 3 intervention widely used is Wraparound. The Wraparound process is based on individualized, needs-driven planning and services. It is not a program or type of service. An individualized plan is developed by a Child and Family Team, consisting of people who know the student best.

The four phases of Wraparound:

The first phase of Wraparound focuses on team development. A facilitator (or co-facilitators) is selected for the team.The goals of Phase I are to:

  • engage families.
  • understand the process.
  • identify student and family strengths and needs.
  • identify team members.

Family engagement is crucial in the Wraparound process. The family’s voice leads the team, giving the family ownership of the process. The development of the Child and Family Team is based on the family’s supports, focusing on individual’s role with the family.

Phase II of the Wraparound process focuses on developing team ‘culture’ and collaborative team building.The goals of Phase II are to:

  • develop a cohesive team with clearly defined roles and relationships to the student.
  • gather additional strengths from team members.
  • integrate data to identify and prioritize specific needs of the student.
  • create a mission statement.
  • identify the student’s ‘Big Needs’ (examples of ‘Big Needs’ statements: The student needs to feel adults and peers respect him. The student needs to feel happy about being at school. The parent needs to know his or her son is getting a fair shake at school.)
  • begin brainstorming of interventions to meet the ‘Big Needs.’

Phase III of the Wraparound process focuses on modifying, adapting, and adjusting team plans in order to reach the ‘Big Need.’
The goals of Phase III are to:

  • use strengths to develop strategies to meet the ‘Big Needs.’
  • improve student’s quality of life by implementing strategies and interventions.
  • use data to evaluate effectiveness of strategies and interventions.
  • modify, adapt, and adjust team plans.

Phase IV of the Wraparound process focuses on maintaining positive outcomes related to the ‘Big Needs.’The goals of Phase IV are to:

  • transition the student from more intensive to less intensive supports.
  • use strategies based on natural supports.
  • provide a purposeful transition out of ‘formal’ Wraparound process with goals of maintaining positive outcomes.

How Effective is Tier 3 Tertiary Interventions and Supports?

Tier 3 Interventions and Supports are effective for 1-2% of those students receiving tier three services. Despite the intensive level of support that Tier 3 provides, some students will still need additional services to encourage positive behavior and school success.

How is Effectiveness of Tier 3 Tertiary Interventions and Supports Measured?

The Wraparound process is monitored with specific perception data tools that measure success of the individualized plan and whether or not the ‘Big Need’ is being met and the student’s quality of life is improving.

For details about how Tier 3 Tertiary Interventions and Supports looks in each implementing school, refer to the PBIS link for the school.